The appearance manifold [WTL*06] is an efficient approach for modeling and editing time-variant appearance of materials from the BRDF data captured at single time instance. However, this method is difficult to apply in images in which weathering and shading variations are combined. In this paper, we present a technique for modeling and editing the weathering effects of an object in a single image with appearance manifolds. In our approach, we formulate the input image as the product of reflectance and illuminance. An iterative method is then developed to construct the appearance manifold in color space (i.e., Lab space) for modeling the reflectance variations caused by weathering. Based on the appearance manifold, we propose a statistical method to robustly decompose reflectance and illuminance for each pixel. For editing, we introduce a “pixel-walking” scheme to modify the pixel reflectance according to its position on the manifold, by which the detailed reflectance variations are well preserved. We illustrate our technique in various applications, including weathering transfer between two images that is first enabled by our technique. Results show that our technique can produce much better results than existing methods, especially for objects with complex geometry and shading effects.
Published on December 29, 2016 by Microsoft Research